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托福听力如何破解举例目的题

2018-09-28 11:35

来源:新东方合肥学校

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  什么是举例目的题?举例目的题考什么?举例目的为什么难?如何破解举例目的题?今天新东方合肥学校国外考试部郭敏老师针对以上问题为大家详细解读:

  1 什么是举例目的题?

  托福听力的出题,按照官方的划分,可以分成三种题型:

  Basic Comprehension questions基本理解题

  Pragmatic Understanding questions 情景理解题

  Connecting Information questions 整合信息题

  第一种主要考察学员对主旨和重要细节的把握;

  第二种考察语境理解,出现形式为态度题和重听题考察单句功能;

  第三种难度递增,主要考察信息互联,如考察整合、推断, 进行预测、归纳总结、得出结论的能力,尤其是识别并解释观点和细节之间的联系,其中非常常见且难度不低的一种考察方式就是考举例目的。

  2 举例目的题考什么?

  Some Understanding Organization questions may ask you to identify or recognize how one statement functions with respect to surrounding text. Functions may include indicating or signaling a topic shift, connecting a main topic to a subtopic, providing an introduction or a conclusion, giving an example, starting a digression, or even making a joke.

  几乎每篇听力都会碰到,大家很熟悉的经典问法如下:

  Why does the professor discuss X?

  Why does the professor mention X?

  解析OG给的组织结构题定义,我认为举例目的题核心的考法是考察信息互联;如果你留心观察过英文行文和写作方式,你会发现,举例是一种再常见不过的例证,属于supporting details,是对main point或major idea的支撑,而考察为什么提到这个例子,是非常精准的考察了例子和观点之间的关系,也就是如下原文中黑体的文字:

  In Understanding Organization questions you may be asked about the overall organization of the listening passage, or you may be asked about the relationship between two portions of the listening passage.

  重点考察听力材料中两个部分的关联,比所听所得的细节题难度要高,不仅需要学员识别出观点和细节,甚至还需要关注上下文两个部分之间的关联,这也是我一向强调需要全文听结构,记结构性笔记的原因。

  具体来说,就是教授在提出一个观点时,为了便于学生理解,翔实论证,一般都会继续给出例子在支撑论点,比如TPO43L2 Approximate Number Sense一文中,教授先下定义,说判断或估计数字或事物的相对数量的能力叫做ANS,接着解释这种能力与生俱来,是先天的,然后为了进一步解释支撑这个定义,给了六个月婴儿和动物也能估数两个例子。

  原文:

  ANS is a very basic, innate ability. It's what enables you to decide at a glance whether there're more apples than oranges on a shelf. And studies have shown that even six-month-old infants are able to use this sense to some extent. And if you think about it, you'll realize that it's an ability that some animals have as well.

  我们来看一下对应出题:

  Why does the professor mention six-month-old infants?

  A. To emphasize that ANS is largely innate.

  B. To refute the claim that symbolic mathematics is learned.

  C. To point out the difficulty of testing mathematics ability in very young children.

  D. To contrast the way infants learn with how older children learn.

  题目考察为什么教授提到六个月婴儿(的例子),选项B是反驳数学是习得的说法,信息错位;选项C指出年幼孩童测试数学能力的困难,未提及;选项D对比婴儿和较大儿童学习方式,未提及;正确答案是A,举出六个月婴儿的例子,是为了强调“ANS主要是与生俱来”这一观点。

  了解了举例目的题是什么,考什么之后,接下来我们来看看为什么这种题的难度在哪里,为什么容易错。

  3 举例目的题为什么难?

  来看TPO2-C1的一段原文:

  Student: Hmm . . . something just came into my mind and went out the other side.

  Professor: That happens to me a lot, so I’ve come up with a pretty good memory management tool.

  I carry a little pad with me all the time and jot down questions or ideas that I don’t want to forget.

  For example, I went to the doctor with my daughter and her baby son last week and we knew we wouldn’t remember everything we wanted to ask the doctor, so we actually made a list of five things we wanted answers to.

  Student: A notepad is a good idea.

  Since I’m so busy now at the end of the semester, I’m getting pretty forgetful these days.

  OK. I just remembered what I was trying to say before.

  对话这一块出题点设置比较有趣,属于和主旨不直接关联的digression,师生从开篇一直在讨论学生的关于气候变化的research project, 但学生突然忘记了一个想问的问题,教授附和,说我也如此,所以我有一个“ good memory management tool”,会经常用一个pad来记下一些问题和想法,并举出上周带女儿和外孙去看医生之前列问题清单的例子,学生赞同主意好,表示最近忙很健忘,然后说突然想起刚才想问的问题。

  学生初听这一块内容,是比较容易听到“I went to the doctor with my daughter and her baby son last week” 这个例子的,因为例子内容不难,词汇高频,以及例子中充斥着大量细节,容易听懂,也容易抓住学生的注意力,但是为什么听懂了例子,还有可能做不对题呢?

  因为学生听材料,尤其听难度材料,在信息输入的过程中,往往因为生词、背景,或者语速的原因影响整合和理解,缺乏上下文串联的能力,容易导致听到什么就是/记什么,往往忽略了此类型题目考察的重点——听力材料中两个部分的关联。如果听到的内容碎片化,忽略了结构和逻辑,自然很难顺利推导出 “提到例子b是为了支撑观点a”。

  听的时候,感觉自己听到了不少,做题的时候,看题干也可能有些印象,但是对于选出正确选项,听力的印象就非常模糊,感觉多个选项中都有自己听到的关键词,而混淆选项中往往会原词再现,从而导致学员错选(正确的选项经常有l同义替换)。

  4 如何破举例目的题?

  我为大家推荐以下思路:

  首先,了解此种类型的题目考察要点

  其次,注意讲座结构划分,具体到每一段如何展开论证

  接着,关注段落里的分论点和例证

  最后,找到信号词/引导句,明确例子如何支撑观点

  下面通过几个讲义的例子,为大家做进一步的解读:

  TPO2-L3

  1 Why does the professor tell the man about the appointment at the doctor's office?

  To demonstrate a way of remembering things

  To explain why she needs to leave soon

  To illustrate a point that appears in his report

  To emphasize the importance of good health

  解读:

  观点:good memory management tool

  例子:went to the doctor with…

  信号词:for example

  刚才我们说举例目的题考察信息互联,并不是单一的细节点,此处的题干the appointment at the doctor's office,在听力原文中是作为例证出现的,支撑了good memory management tool-我有好的记忆管理工具这个观点。这一部分内容,从结构上,游离于对话主旨之外,单独出题,在学员首遍听的时候,很容易抓不住与上下文之间关系,听到了例子,但没留意例子之前的观点,导致失分。

  TPO4-L1

  2 What’s interesting is that studies have been done that suggest that the animal’s environment may play a part in determining what kind of behavior it displays. For example, there’s a bird, the ‘wood thrush’, anyway, when the ‘wood thrush’ is in an attack-escape conflict, that is, it’s caught between the two urges to escape from or to attack an enemy, if it’s sitting on a horizontal branch, it’ll wipe its beak on its perch. If it’s sitting on a vertical branch, it’ll groom its breast feathers. The immediate environment of the bird, its immediate, um, its relationship to its immediate environment seems to play a part in which behavior will display.

  译文:

  有趣的是,某些研究已经表明动物的生活环境也许对其会表现出什么行为有决定性的作用。比如说,有一种叫画眉的鸟。不管怎样,当画眉鸟遇到进攻或逃离的冲突时,即当画眉鸟出于要不逃跑危险要不进攻的境地时,如果它是停在水平树枝上的话,它会将自己的喙往栖木上磨,而如果是停在垂直的树干上的话,便会整理胸前的羽毛。鸟所处的即时环境,它与这种即时环境的关系,似乎对其表现出来的行为起到一定的作用。

  Why does the professor mention the wood thrush?

  A. To contrast its displacement activities with those of other animals species.

  B. To explain that some animals display displacement activities other than grooming

  C. To point out how displacement activities are influenced by the environment.

  D. To give an example of an animal that does not display displacement activities.

  解读:

  观点:animal’s environment may play a part in determining what kind of behavior it displays.

  例子:Wood thrush

  信号词:for example

  本篇主要内容以三个术语为内容框架,在开篇提出displacement activity,举例解释了什么是动物的替代行为,再让学生进一步举例说明此定义,后围绕解释disinhibition解除抑制,讨论了替代行为出现的原因,以及为什么通常是comfort behavior舒适行为。在文章最后一段,以学生提问-教授回答的方式,提出环境影响了动物展现出的替代行为。

  本段的观点非常清晰,有考强调的信号词interesting和考研究结论的信号词study出现,紧跟就出现environment观点关键词,其后就开始提出一个例子wood thrush,与上一题目不同的是,本篇例子里有较多细节说明,尤其是出现列举对比水平和竖直的树枝的环境,有一定难度,如果在如此长段的细节里,学员不能抛开细节抓主干,有意去听论点和例子的对应关系,就很容易迷失在细节里,慌于听记笔记,而疏于联系上下文,有意串联整合段落结构,导致抓不住出题点。

  TPO5-L1

  3 Have you ever heard the one about alligators living in New York sewers? The story goes like this: a family went on vacation in Florida and bought a couple of baby alligators as presents for their children, then returned from vacation to New York, bringing the alligators home with them as pets. But the alligators would escape and find their way into the New York sewer system where they started reproducing, grew to huge sizes and now strike fear into sewer workers. Have you heard this story? Well, it isn’t true and it never happened. But despite that, the story has been around since the 1930s.

  Or how about the song ‘twinkle, twinkle little star’, you know, ‘twinkle, twinkle, little star, how I wonder what you are’. Well we’ve all heard this song. Where am I going with this? Well, both the song and the story are examples of memes. And that’s what we would talk about, the theory of memes.

  译文:

  你可曾有听过生活于纽约下水道的短吻鳄的故事?故事是这样的:有一家人在佛罗里达度假之后,给家里的孩子带回了几只小短吻鳄作为礼物,回到纽约后,把这几只小短吻鳄当做宠物养着。然而短吻鳄逃走并找到回去纽约下水道的路,在那里开始繁殖长成大短吻鳄,现在下水道工人也心有余悸。不知道你有没有听过这个故事。其实,这个故事并不是真的,从来就没有发生过。但尽管如此,该故事自20世纪30年代就已传开来了。

  那么我们谈谈这首歌,“一闪一闪亮晶晶”,就是这样唱的:“一闪一闪晶晶,满天都是小星星”。好吧,我们肯定都听过这首歌。我的用意在哪儿(那我要讲什么呢)?这个故事和这首歌都是用来介绍模因的两个例子。这就是我们要讲的,文化基因。

  Why does the professor tell the story about alligators?

  A. To explain the difference between true and false stories

  B. To draw an analogy between alligator reproduction and cultural transmission

  C. To give an example of a piece of information that functions as a meme

  D. To show how a story can gradually change into a song

  解读:

  观点:the theory of memes.

  例子:alligators/the song ‘twinkle, twinkle little star’

  信号词:both the song and the story are examples of memes.

  本题考点出现在文章起始,以一个有趣的故事开头,同样故事细节有很多,若学员忙于听记故事细节,或甚至在教授唱歌!时,分了神,顿失线索,可谓得不偿失,因为只要坚持抛开细节听主干,关注结构,你就不会迷失在繁琐的例子具体内容里,很快就能听到教授想要表达的重点——故事和歌曲,都是为了导入本课主旨meme举的例子。

  了解了此类题型的考察方式,并有意训练自己听上下文联系的能力,敏锐捕捉教授总结性的或举例内容的信号词,牢牢锁定观点和例证的对应关系,观点必须听到并记录,如果精力有限,例证只需留下大略印象,依然能锁定考点正确答题。

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(编辑:Lin)

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